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Polymorphism is the idea that a base class can be inherited by several classes. A base class pointer can point to its child class and a base class array can store different child class objects. If an object (with a non-virtual destructor) is destroyed explicitly by applying the delete operator to a base-class pointer to the object, the base-class destructor function (matching the pointer type) is called on the object. There is a simple solution to this problem declare a virtual base-class destructor. This makes all derived-class destructors virtual even though they don’t have the same name as the base-class destructor. Now, if the object in the hierarchy is destroyed explicitly by applying the delete operator to a base-class pointer to a derived-class object, the destructor for the appropriate class is called. Virtual constructor: Constructors cannot be virtual. Declaring a constructor as a virtual function is a syntax error.

Virtual destructors: If an object (with a non-virtual destructor) is destroyed explicitly by applying the delete operator to a base-class pointer to the object, the base-class destructor function (matching the pointer type) is called on the object. There is a simple solution to this problem – declare a virtual base-class destructor. This makes all derived-class destructors virtual even though they don’t have the same name as the base-class destructor. Now, if the object in the hierarchy is destroyed explicitly by applying the delete operator to a base-class pointer to a derived-class object, the destructor for the appropriate class is called.

Templates allow to create generic functions that admit any data type as parameters and return value without having to overload the function with all the possible data types. Until certain point they fulfill the functionality of a macro. Its prototype is any of the two following ones: template function_declaration; template function_declaration;

The only difference between both prototypes is the use of keyword class or typename, its use is indistinct since both expressions have exactly the same meaning and behave exactly the same way.

Namespaces allow us to group a set of global classes, objects and/or functions under a name. To say it somehow, they serve to split the global scope in sub-scopes known as namespaces. The form to use namespaces is: namespace identifier { namespace-body } Where identifier is any valid identifier and namespace-body is the set of classes, objects and functions that are included within the namespace. For example: namespace general { int a, b; } In this case, a and b are normal variables integrated within the general namespace. In order to access to these variables from outside the namespace we have to use the scope operator ::. For example, to access the previous variables we would have to put: general::a general::b The functionality of namespaces is specially useful in case that there is a possibility that a global object or function can have the same name than another one, causing a redefinition error.

Basic example for C++ Online Tutoring Help is as follows :

#include<iostream>
using namespace std;

int main(){
      //declaring array
       int array[5];
       cout<<"Enter 5 numbers randomly : "<<endl;
       for(int i=0; i<5; i++)
       {
      //Taking input in array  
        cin>>array[i];        
       }  
       cout<<endl; 
       cout<<"Input array is: "<<endl;
      
       for(int j=0; j<5; j++)
       {
        //Displaying Array 
        cout<<"\t\t\tValue at "<<j<<" Index: "<<array[j]<<endl;         
       }   
       cout<<endl;
     // Bubble Sort Starts Here
      int temp;
      for(int i2=0; i2<=4; i2++)
    {
      for(int j=0; j<4; j++)
      {
         //Swapping element in if statement    
            if(array[j]>array[j+1])
        {
         temp=array[j];
         array[j]=array[j+1];
         array[j+1]=temp;        
        }
      }         
    } 
    // Displaying Sorted array
       cout<<"  Sorted Array is: "<<endl;
      for(int i3=0; i3<5; i3++)
    {
     cout<<"\t\t\tValue at "<<i3<<" Index: "<<array[i3]<<endl;  
    }   
return 0;
}

 

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