A microprocessor includes the functions of a computer's central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC),or at most a few integrated circuits. It is a multipurpose, programmable device that accepts digital data as input, processes it according to instructions stored in its memory, and provides results as output. It is an example of chronological digital logic, as it has internal memory. Microprocessors operate on numbers and symbols represented in the binary numeral system.
Thousands of substances that were traditionally not computer-related include microprocessors. These include large and small household appliances, cars (and their accessory equipment units), car keys, tools and test instruments, toys, light switches/dimmers and electrical circuit breakers, smoke alarms, battery packs, and hi-fi audio/visual components (from DVD players to phonograph turntables.) Such products as cellular telephones, DVD video system and HDTV broadcast systems fundamentally require consumer devices with powerful, low-cost, microprocessors. Increasingly stringent pollution control standards effectively require automobile manufacturers to use microprocessor engine management systems, to allow optimal control of emissions over widely varying operating conditions of an automobile. Non-programmable controls would require complex, bulky, or costly implementation to achieve the results possible with a microprocessor.
Microprocessor control of a system can give control strategies that would be impractical to implement using electromechanical controls or purpose-built electronic controls. For example, an engine control system in an automobile can adjust ignition timing based on engine speed, load on the engine, ambient temperature, and any observed tendency for knocking - allowing an automobile to operate on a range of fuel grades.
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Basic example of MIcroprocessor programming is as follows :
MICROPROCESSOR PROGRAMMING EXAMPLE -------------
To write an assembly language program to perform addition of two 16-bit signed and unsigned numbers.
ASSUME CS : CODE, DS : DATA
MOV AX, DATA
MOV DS, AX
MOV AX, OPR1
ADD AX, OPR2
MOV RES, AX
OPR1 DW 4269H
OPR2 DW 1000H
RES DW ?
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