Rust vs C++

Rust vs C++: What are the Main Differences?

Programming is one of the most sought-after careers for students. Most of the students want to learn a programming language and build their careers with it, but they are often confused between different programming languages. So today, we are here to tell you about Rust vs C++. Rust and C++ are two of the essential languages for developing the Internet of things. Both these languages are very famous in the areas where low-level memory and controller access, speed, and direct link with HW configuration are required. Apart from the students, this blog is also helpful for the programmers who want to choose one among Rust and C++ for their project. 

Introduction to Rust

Rust is a general-purpose, high-level, open-source, and multi-paradigm programming language that is mainly known for safety and performance. Graydon Hoare is the primary developer of Rust, and Dave Herman, Brenden Eich, and some others have also contributed to its development. According to StackOverflow’s annual survey, it is the most loved programming language for the last four years. Due to the direct access with memory and hardware, it is the best choice for bare-metal development. Developers can also use it to write operating systems. Redox, QuiltOS, Tock, and Rux are a few of the examples of the operating systems written with Rust. 

Introduction to C++

C++ is an object-oriented, general-purpose programming language. Bjarne Stroustrup created C++ as the extension of C language at Bell Labs in 1980. It is very similar to the C language, and a C++ compiler can compile almost every C program without changing any line of code. As C++ is based on OOPs, it more safer and more well-structured than the C language. C++ is a general-purpose language, and programmers can use it for various development purposes such as operating systems, Games, libraries, browsers, banking applications, browsers, cloud systems, compilers, etc. C++ can manipulate hardware resources and is very popular for developing applications that require direct access to the hardware resources.

Rust vs C++: What are the Differences?

Following are the main differences between Rust vs C++

Pointers

A pointer is an object in computer science that stores a memory address. We can also say that the address “points to” data elsewhere in the program. Smart pointers are data structures with extra functionality and metadata. The pointer functionality is present in almost all low-level and high-level languages. The std::shared_ptr and std::unique_ptr types in C++ can be utilized as smart pointers. The reference counting smart pointer type is one of the smart pointers in Rust’s standard library. Both C++ and Rust make extensive use of smart pointers in the form of objects (std::string in C++ and String in Rust), which provide many other additional capabilities.

Memory safety

Automatic memory management is not available in most system-level languages since various features like garbage collection can negatively impact performance. C++ has sacrificed memory safety in order to maintain its speed, which is a drawback of this language. New features like Resource Acquisition is Initialization have eliminated manual memory management in recent C + + upgrades. However, they do not resolve the underlying concerns. Rust employs an ownership system that ensures and enhances memory safety across the board to address this problem. It prevents the necessity for any manual memory management techniques. Rust comes with built-in management features, whereas C++ leaves it up to the programmer.

Rust vs C++ Infographic

Compile Time

Both Rust and C++ take almost the same time for the compilation, depending on how many templates a C++ project implements. More templates will slow down the compilation. In general, incremental compilation works better in C++. The compiler in Rust is well-known for its friendliness. It has excellent tooling and appropriate error messages.

Frameworks and libraries

Even though Rust is a younger language than C++, both offer remarkable frameworks and libraries. C++ libraries are more general-purpose, but the distinction is that, unlike C#, Java, and JavaScript, C++ is not a framework-driven environment. Various Rust frameworks provide functional, secure, and robust code, such as Rocket, Azul, etc. The Standard Library, which is a collection of classes and functions, is the most essential C++ library. It has numerous generic containers, container manipulation functions, generic streams and strings(including file I/O and Interactive). The Unreal Engine is a game development system based in the C++ programming language.

Ease of use

Because of the well-defined semantics and ability to eliminate unwanted behavior, most programmers who use both Rust and C++ feel that Rust is easier to use. C++ has so many features that keeping track of them can be difficult. 

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User Interface

Though no language can be the 1st choice for UI development, it can be one of the main areas of comparison for Rust and C++. GTKmm, a new interface for the GTK+ C library, is available in C++. Azul, an open-source, immediate-mode GUI framework that we covered earlier, is available in Rust. It’s modern and has an active community.

Game Development

C++ is currently the most popular language for game development. The Unreal Engine, built in C++, is a compelling framework for game development. Unreal Engine is a well-known, mature and advanced engine. Rust is new in the world of game development. But, it lacks the strength of C++ frameworks. No doubt, Rust can be used to create games, although it will take a lot of time for it to match the power of C++ in this area. However,  it may become more competitive if more Rust developers contribute to its ecosystem.

Conclusion

In this blog, we have provided detailed information about Rust vs C++. As you see, both Rust and C++ have several significant differences to consider. We have tried to mention all the weaknesses and strengths of these languages in comparison to one another. Hopefully, you can now distinguish between Rust and C++ and decide which language is better for your project. Apart from Rust vs C++, if you need any help with programming or C++ Assignment Help, you can discuss it with our experts anytime.

Frequently Asked Questions

Should I learn C++ or Rust?

If you want to learn Rust better, you should first learn C++. As you know, Rust was developed as an advancement to the current-age low-level programming and needs some knowledge about functional programming to understand its various concepts, such as pattern matching, monads, etc. Therefore, it will be better for you to learn C++ first and then Rust.

Is Rust going to replace C++?

It depends on how replace is defined. If you ask about the complete removal of C++ code and replacing it with Rust, then no language can replace the other. For example, Cobol and Fortran are not so common these days but still, a lot of code is written in both these languages. If you define replace in terms of usage, then again, Rust can’t replace C++. Many large companies have been utilizing C++ for a very long time, and generally, large companies hesitate to make big technology switches.

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