The Spring Framework is an open-source application framework that supports the development of Java applications by providing infrastructure support. It is one of the renowned Java Enterprise Edition frameworks. Spring helps developers create efficient applications by using Plain Old Java Objects (POJOs).
Prior to the introduction of Enterprise Java Beans (EJB), Java developers needed to utilize JavaBeans for the creation of Web applications. While JavaBeans helps in the creation of user interface (UI) components, but it is not able to provide the services like transaction management and security, which are essential for the development of secure and reliable enterprise applications.
The introduction of EJB was thought to be an answer to this issue. EJB expands the Java components, including Web as well as enterprise components, and also provides services to help in the development of enterprise-level applications.
However, building an enterprise application with EJB was difficult since the developer had to accomplish a variety of tasks, such as creating the home and remote interfaces and implementing lifecycle callback methods, all of which added to the complexity of writing EJB code. Because of this complexity, developers began to look for an easier method to build enterprise applications.
The Spring framework is emerging as a solution to these issues. It employs diverse new techniques, including Plain Old Java Objects (POJO), Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP), and dependency injection (DI), to build enterprise applications.
It eliminates the difficulties involved in creating enterprise applications with EJB. Spring is an open-source, lightweight framework that allows Java EE 7 developers to build simple, reliable, and scalable enterprise applications using AOP, POJO, and DI.
The main focus of this framework is to give you a variety of options to manage your business assets. It has made the creation of Web applications much simpler in comparison to conventional Java frameworks, and Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) like Java Databases Connectivity (JDBC) and JavaServer Pages (JSP) and Java Servlet.
The Spring framework can be considered as a collection of sub-frameworks, also called layers, such as Spring AOP, Spring Web Flow, Spring Object-Relational Mapping (Spring ORM), and Spring Web MVC. You can use any of these modules separately while constructing a Web application. The modules may also be grouped together to provide better functionality in a Web application.
Why Spring Is Used?
Java applications are complicated and include numerous heavyweight components. The word “heavyweight” refers to the fact that the components depend on the operating system (OS) for their properties and appearance.
Spring is regarded as a low-cost, safe, and flexible framework. Spring increases the efficiency of coding and cuts down on overall development time since it’s lightweight, efficient in using system resources, and offers a great development experience.
Spring eliminates the tedious work of configuration to allow developers to concentrate on creating effective business logic. Spring takes care of the infrastructure so that developers can concentrate on the applications.
The Features Of Spring Framework
The Spring Framework is lightweight with regard to its transparency and size. It is light, especially when compared to EJB containers. This allows you to develop and run applications on computers that have limited CPU and memory.
Inversion Of Control (IoC)
In the Spring Framework, the loose coupling can be achieved through inversion of control. The objects provide their own dependencies rather than finding or creating dependent objects.
Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP)
The Spring Framework supports Aspect-Oriented Programming and allows for coherent development by separating application business logic from system services.
The Spring Framework creates and manages the configuration and lifecycle of application objects.
Also Read: Spring vs Struts
Well-Organized Web Framework
It is a web MVC framework that provides an excellent alternative to web frameworks for building applications with Struts or other widely used web frameworks.
The Spring Framework is an MVC (Model View Controller) web application framework. This framework can be customized via APIs and supports a variety of view technologies.
The Spring framework provides a generic abstraction layer for transaction management. It is not restricted to J2EE environments and can be utilized in container-free settings. Spring offers an interface to reduce the size of a single local transaction (for instance, using an individual database) and also scale them into global transactions like JTA.
JDBC Exception Handling:
The Spring Framework’s JDBC abstraction layer has an exception hierarchy, which makes error handling easier.
The Spring framework comes with a variety of templates designed for JDBC, Hibernate, and JPA technologies. By using this framework, developers do not have to write complicated code. For instance, JdbcTemplate, where we don’t have to create the code for making an account, making a statement, committing the transaction, or even handling exceptions. It is a time-saving approach.
We could consider Spring applications as loosely coupled following dependency injection methods.
Easy and Simple to Test
A spring framework with a dependency injection technique makes it simple to test the entire application. It is important to note that the EJB and Struts applications require a server to run the applications.
It’s simple to integrate the framework and help create JavaEE-based apps with Dependency Injection.
Strong Abstraction Support
Spring offers powerful abstraction capabilities of Java EE-based specifications, including JDBC, JMS, JPA and JTA.
Spring Delivers a Suitable API
It transforms the technology-specific anomalies generated through Hibernate, JDBC, or JDO into uncontrolled, uniform exceptions.
From the above discussion, you may now understand what the Spring framework is. Spring is one of the most popular Java-based frameworks.
It provides complete infrastructure support to develop Java applications. Spring takes care of the infrastructure, allowing you to concentrate on your application. Hopefully, all your doubts regarding what the spring framework is have cleared now. In case you are still confused, please read the above blog carefully, or comment down your doubts.
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Frequently Asked Questions
What are the different Spring frameworks?
The Spring framework has seven modules that are Spring Core, Spring Web MVC, Spring AOP, Spring ORM, Spring DAO, Spring context, and Spring Web Flow.
Is Spring only for the web?
Spring is frequently misidentified as only a web framework by developers. On the other hand, it can be used in any Java application, regardless of the context. While Spring has a module and extensions for developing web applications, it isn’t limited to that.