An Essential Guide to Types of Databases in 2022

Companies need databases to store, maintain and update a wide range of data, from employee to customer data. Each Database has different storage capabilities depending on how much data a company requires to store, how many customers they have, and how complex their data is.

As Databases technology has enhanced over the years, so have the distinct Databases. There are many types of databases, each with its stability and weakness based on its design. Businesses need to understand the different Databases to ensure they have the most efficient setup.

Here you learn about the different types of Databases and components of Databases.

Let’s start with the meaning of Databases.

What are Databases?

A database is an information set up for easy access, management, and updating. Computer databases typically store aggregations of data records or files containing sale transactions, customer data, and financial data.

Databases are used for gathering, maintaining, and accessing any data. They accumulate information on people, places, or things. That information is gathered in one place to be observed and analyzed. Databases can be assumed as an organized collection of data.

What is a Database Management System?

The Database Management system is software for storing and retrieving users’ data while considering suitable security measures. It comprises a group of programs that control the database. The DBMS accepts data from an application and instructs the operating system to provide specific data.

The term DBMS encompasses the user of the databases and other application programs. DBMS allows users to create their databases as per their requirements. It provides a connection between the data and the software.

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What are the Merits and demerits of DBMS?

Merits of DBMSDemerits of DBMS
DBMS provides a variety of techniques to store and resolve data.The value of hardware and software of a DBMS is relatively high, which increases your business’s budget.
DBMS provides a systematic handler to balance the needs of multiple applications using the same data.Most database management systems are usually compound systems, so training for users to use the DBMS is required.
A DBMS uses many powerful functions to store and redeem data efficiently.All data is combined into a single database which can be destroyed because of electric failure.
DBMS schedules concurrent access to the data so that only one user can access the same data at a time.The use of the same program by many users sometimes leads to the loss of some data.
They offer data integrity and security.DBMS can’t perform sophisticated calculations.
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What are the different types of Databases?

There are different types of databases:

  1. Centralized database
  2. Distributed database
  3. NoSQL database 
  4. Cloud database 
  5. Relational database
  6. Network database
  7. Object-oriented database
  8. Hierarchical database

Centralized Database:

A centralized database is gathered at a single location, such as a mainframe computer. It is maintained and improved from that location only and usually assessed using an internet connection such as LAN or WAN. They are operated by colleges, companies, banks, etc.


  • Data is easily transferable because it is stored in the same place.
  • It gives better data quality, which enables organizations to initiate data standards.


  •  The size of the centralized database is large, which increases the feedback time for attracting the data.
  • It is not easy to upgrade such an extensive database system.

Distributed database:

Distributed databases is one of the most important types of databases. A distributed database is a merged collection of physically distributed databases across sites in a computer network. A distributed DBMS is a software system that manages distributed databases such that the distribution aspects are transparent to the users.

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Distributed Database is divided into two categories:

  1. Homogenous Distributed database: They execute on the same operating system, use the same application process, and carry the same hardware devices.
  2. Heterogeneous Distributed database: They execute different operating systems under different application procedures and carry different hardware disks.

NoSQL database:

NoSQL(Not just SQL) is a types of databases used to store a wide range of data sets. It is not a regional database as it keeps data not only in tabular form but in several different forms. It came into actuality when the demand for building advanced applications increased.


  • It is a better option for controlling and handling large data sets.
  • It provides high scalability.
  • Users can rapidly access data from the database through critical values.

Cloud database:

A cloud database is a service built and obtained through a cloud platform. It provides many of the same functions as a traditional database with the added elasticity of cloud computing. Users install software on a cloud structure to accomplish the database.

Relational database:

A relational database is built on the relational data model, which stores data in rows and columns and forms of the table. Each table in a database carries a key that makes the data unique from others.

While relational database describes the types of database and RDBMS manages, it refers to the database program. The software performs queries on the data, including adding, updating, and searching the data. An RDBMS  may also offer a visual representation of data.

Network database: 

A network database is a pattern; accordingly, multiple members’ records or files can be connected to multiple owner files and vice versa. The model can be observed as an inverted tree where each member’s information is the branch connected to the owner, which is the bottom of the tree.

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Object-oriented database:

An object-oriented database is a system that can work with complex data objects, that is, objects that mirror those used in an object-oriented programming language. They work in concert with an object-oriented programming language to facilitate the storage and retrieval of object-oriented data.

Hierarchical database:

A hierarchical database is a data structure in which data is stored in the forms of records and arranged into a tree-like structure or parent-child tree, in which one parent node can have many child nodes attached through links.

What are the components of a database?

  1. Hardware: It is the physical device that database software is managing. Database hardware includes computers and hard drives.
  2. Software: They give users control of the database. DBMS software is to manage and control databases.
  3. Data: This is the basic information that the database stores. Database administrators arrange the data to make it more significant.
  1. Data access language: It is the programming language that manages the database. The programming language and the DBMS work together.
  2. Procedures: These rules regulate how the database works and handles the data.

Why are databases important?

  1. Improved efficiency: DBMS is important for business because it efficiently handles large amounts and multiples of data. Accessing the data efficiently allows companies to make informed decisions quickly.
  2. Versatility: DBMS is incredibly versatile. They can be accessed on a computer and even mobile phones.
  3. Multi-access: DBMS allows multiple authorized users to access the same database from different places, to fulfill different plans.
  4. Creating an organized working environment: They offer a way to create a smooth, more managed working environment.
  5. Newer and better ways to maintain data: A powerful DBMS not only allows approved users to add new data to the database while also deleting any data that might have become obsolete.


We discussed the different types of databases and the components of databases. You can choose any kind of database or combination of databases based on your requirements. Designing different data types lies at the core of the functionality they provide to the users. Since data is a dynamic entity, its storage varies a lot.

Large and small companies and organizations like schools, colleges, and universities utilize very useful methods of acquiring and sharing data in systematic entities stored in different databases. If you face any difficulty with the databases or need database homework help, you can discuss it with our experts anytime.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

What are the two types of databases?

i) Single file or flat-file database.
 ii) Multi-file relational or structured database.

What is a digital database?

Comprehensive, sometimes exhaustive, collection of computer files and records pertaining to a specific subject.

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