types of databases

The Essential Guide to Types of Databases in 2021

Are you confused about different types of databases? Don’t worry; in this blog, you will find every bit of information about the different types of databases. Databases are a very crucial part of modern life. Without databases, most modern applications(whether web or desktop) would cease to exist. We are using databases for storing IoT data, financial transactions, web traffic, social media posts, etc. If you are studying databases or work with databases, it becomes necessary for you to understand the various types of databases. Before jumping into the different types of databases, let’s first see a basic introduction to databases.

What is a Database

A database is a collection of information or data, or records. An adequate memory of the past and present records is necessary to run a system efficiently. Almost all large and small organizations such as schools, hospitals, universities, banks, and many others use databases to store their crucial data. Everything from storing a picture on your device to depositing money in your bank account is done with the help of databases. A database management system(DBMS) is required to store, retrieve, and organize data efficiently. The data can be inserted, updated, deleted, and retrieved using various algorithms and queries. There are many types of databases, and different databases use different kinds of structures to fulfill the unique requirements of users.

Types of Databases

For the different needs of the users, we have different types of databases. You can also notice an overlap in various kinds of databases. The following list of databases will help you to make a better decision about which database is best for which situation.

  • Cloud database
  • Centralized database
  • Commercial database
  • End-user database
  • Distributed database
  • Graph database
  • Relational database
  • Object-oriented database
  • NoSQL database
  • Operational database
infographic types of databases

Cloud Database

A database that runs over the Internet is Cloud Database. Cloud databases are built, deployed, and delivered through a cloud platform. In Cloud databases, the information is stored on a server or hard drive, but it is available on the Internet. So this gives a benefit of accessing your data anywhere and anytime. Users can either purchase a cloud service or can build one by themselves. Encryption is very important for any cloud database as information is accessible through the Internet.

Centralized Database

A database that stores data at a centralized database system is called Centralized Database. Bigger organizations such as a university or business generally use centralized databases. Central library is the perfect example of a centralized database that carries a central database of every library in a university or college. In a centralized database, the database is located on a main computer or storage system. Users can use a computer network to access the central computer that maintains the database. A centralized database decreases the risk of data manipulation as data is stored in a central repository.

Commercial database

A database that is created for Commercial use only is called a Commercial database. Companies develop feature-rich databases to sell to their customers. Access to commercial databases is provided through commercial links. We can also say that commercial databases are the paid versions of the databases that are built uniquely for the users to access the data.

End-user database

The term “end-user” is used for the person for which the product is made. A database that is primarily created for the use of a single person is called an End-user database. Generally, the end-user is not concerned about the operations and transactions performed at various stages of data handling and is only familiar with the application or software. A spreadsheet stored on a local computer is a great example of an end-user database.

Distributed database

A database that is distributed over multiple devices is named Distributed database. It is just opposite to the centralized database, where the data is stored in a central location. In a Distributed database, the information is not stored in a single place. Instead, it is distributed at multiple locations of an organization. Communication links are used for connecting these locations and accessing the distributed data. We have two types of the distributed database that is-

  1. Homogeneous- Uses the same operating system, hardware, and application procedures at all sites.
  2. Heterogeneous- Underlying hardware, operating system, and application procedures can be different at various sites.
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Graph Databases

A database that uses nodes and edges to describe the data and connection between them is called Graph Database. A node represents an entity, and an edge describes the relationships of entities. Graph databases focus on the data and their connections equally. In graph databases, the links are also stored alongside the original data in the database, making it very fast and efficient. Generally, these databases are used for analyzing the interconnections. For instance, companies can mine data about customers from social media with the help of a graph database.

Relational Database

Relational database stores information in a structured way. It is a collection of data items that are organized as a set of tables and has pre-defined relationships between them. A table of a relational database consists of rows and columns. SQL is the standard application programming used for a relational database. A person accessing an e-commerce website and storing products in his cart is a good example of a Relational database. 

Object-oriented database

Object-oriented databases represent the data as objects and classes. An object is a real-world entity such as a student name or mobile number, whereas a class is a blueprint of an object. Object-oriented databases are arranged around objects. An object-oriented database is a type of relational database.

NoSQL database

NoSQL is also called “non-SQL” or “not only SQL”. These databases have emerged as a great alternative to relational databases. NoSQL databases can have a variety of forms. The main difference between a relational database and a NoSQL Is that NoSQL databases can be schema-agnostic, allowing semistructured and unstructured data to be stored. In contrast, a relational database management system strictly defines how the data should be inserted and must be typed and composed.

Operational database

The databases that allow users to modify data in real-time are called Operational databases. These databases are very important for data warehousing and business analytics. Operational databases can be set up as NoSQL OR relational databases, according to the requirements of the users. Unlike conventional databases that rely on batch processing, operational databases allow their users to insert, modify, delete data anytime.


In this blog, we have provided detailed information about the main types of databases. Hopefully, you got some valuable information and can now select one among the different types of databases that best suits your requirements. If you face any difficulty with the databases or need database homework help, you can discuss it with our experts anytime.

Frequently Asked Questions


A JSON(Javascript Object Notation)  document database is a nonrelational database that is mainly designed to store and query data as JSON documents instead of normalizing data across different tables that have a fixed and unique structure. No doubt JSON database is the most famous type of NoSQL database.

What is SQL vs NoSQL?

SQL stands for a structured query language, and NoSQL stands for the non-structured query language. SQL databases are relational, whereas NoSQL databases are non-relational. SQL databases use tables and are better for multi-row transactions. NoSQL databases are best for unstructured data such as JSON.

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