types of assembly language

Top Types Of Assembly Language You Must Know

Despite the increasing popularity of high-level languages like Java and Python to develop software and application programs, We cannot ignore the importance of Assembly languages. If a programmer can learn to code in assembly language and put it into practice, he can gain a lot. The various uses of assembly languages include real-time coding systems, boot scripts, low-level embedded systems, reverse engineering, Device drivers, and many other applications.

As a result, many students are curious about Assembly Languages, however, they are often confused about the different types of Assembly languages. So, in this blog, we’ll clear up any confusion you could have about the types of Assembly languages. But, before that let’s first go through the basic introduction of Assembly language.

What Is Assembly Language?

Assembly is a low-level programming language that is more close to machine-level language than C. The assembly language has a close relationship to the architecture’s machine code instructions and is unique to that machine. An assembler is a software program that converts assembly code into machine code to be executed. It translates assembly code’s basic instructions and operations into binary code that a certain type of processor can recognize. 

Assembly language allows you to manipulate hardware directly, fix performance concerns, and access special instructions for CPUs. Assembly language help computer programmers in writing code that is nearly equivalent to machine code in terms of readability and comprehension. As machine language consists of only numbers, it isn’t easy to read and understand. Assembly language offers total control over the computer operations.

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Some Important Terms

  • Symbol table: They keep track of the value of the programming language symbols and their related numeric values.
  • Opcode table: They keep track of the value of mnemonics and their numerical equivalents.
  • Location Counter: It saves the address of the storage place for the current instruction.

Assembly Language Features

The various important features of the assembly language are as follows:

  • The Decimal characters can be used to declare the data.
  • High-level control of various hardware operations
  • It is extremely faster since it is well optimized to use just the required resources.
  • Good Memory management
  • This language aids in the specification of the symbolic operand, removing the need to provide the operand’s machine address. It’s possible to depict it with a symbol.
  • Access memory and hardware registers that can’t be accessed using high-level languages.
  • Necessary to rely on compilers to optimize code is eliminated.
  • Issues in the assembler are considerably easier to find and correct than bugs in the compiler.

Types Of Assembly Languages

Every type of CPU has its own assembly language and own set of instructions, however, they all look pretty similar. All the CPU types have their own eccentricities, therefore no two assembly languages are the same. Embedded microcontrollers, Microcomputers, high-performance servers and workstations, minicomputers, and mainframes are all examples of different CPU architectures. At least one assembler is available for each CPU architecture. However, one CPU architecture can have numerous alternative assemblers available. Even if all assemblers for a given CPU architecture generate machine code for that architecture, each one utilizes a somewhat distinct syntax or set of rules.

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Apart from this, whenever programmers write the program to convert human-readable assembly language to machine code, they can add twist the syntax. For instance, some assemblers feature Macro-instructions to save you typing – they may have different syntax, even for the same underlying CPU type. They may even use different mnemonics for the same instruction, such as “JNE” versus “BNE” for “jump on not equal” and “branch on not equal”, “JMP” against “JUMP”, etc.

If you have the knowledge of Assembly language for one CPU, you just need a little study and instruction set manual to develop code for a different CPU. Despite processor type, an assembly language may be divided into three types.

Basic Assembly Language

Basic Assembly language just converts instructions to opcodes. The majority of these are for very small embedded devices. 

Normal/Typical Assembly Language

It accomplishes the functions of Basic assembly language but also includes directives and pseudo-instructions for generating data blocks, setting code segments, and much more. This is how the majority of assemblers work.

Macro Assembly Language

A good one will have a large macro language with substitutions, loops, and other features. They have the potential to be extremely strong. The IBM 360 Assembler demonstrates this. This may also be seen in the Microsoft x86/x64 MASM assembler.

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What Are Types of Assembler?

Along with types of Assembly languages, students also confuse regarding the types of Assemblers. A software that converts Assembly language to machine code is known as an assembler. 

We have primarily two types of assemblers which are listed below-

One-Pass Assembler

This type of Assembler converts the whole assembly code into machine code in one go.

Two-Pass/Multi-Pass Assembler

These types of Assemblers first perform code processing and store the values in the opcode table. And, the machine code is generated using these tables in the second step. 

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Pass 1

  • Opcode and symbol tables are defined.
  • Location counter record keeping.
  • Processes pseudo instructions

Pass 2

  • Converts opcode into numeric opcode.
  • Machine code generation according to the values of symbols and literals.

Conclusion

In this blog, we have provided information on the various types of Assembly language. Additionally, we have also discussed the types of assemblers used to convert assembly language into machine language. Actually, there is no general categorization of the Assembly language types because a distinct assembly language is included with each machine architecture. They can range from the very basic like 4004, 6502, to extremely difficult like VAX-11, etc. Hopefully, this blog developed a clear picture of the types of assembly in your mind.

Moreover, we have a team of experts Assembly language programmers. So, if if you need Assembly language homework help, you can discuss your requirements with our experts.

Frequently Asked Questions

How is assembly language different from machine language?

Yes, both assembly language and machine language are different. Machine language is a low-level programming language that is comprised of binary digits(0s and 1s). The only language that a computer knows is machine language. But, the computer does not understand assembly language directly. The assembly language is converted to machine language by Assembler to execute.

What is mnemonics assembly language?

A mnemonic is simply a symbolic name for a single executable machine language instruction (an opcode), and each machine language instruction has at least one opcode mnemonic. Each instruction is made up of an operation (opcode) and one or more operands.

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