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Artificial intelligence which is abbreviated as “AI” is the intelligence of equipment and robots and the division of computer science that aims to create it. AI textbooks define the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents" where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success. John McCarthy, who coined the term in 1955, classifies it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines."

AI research is highly technical and particular, deeply divided into subfields that often fail to communicate with each other. There are subfields which are focused on the solution of specific problems, on one of several possible approaches, on the use of widely differing tools and towards the accomplishment of particular applications. The central problems of AI include such traits as reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, communication, perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects. General intelligence (or "strong AI") is still among the field's long term goals. Currently popular approaches include statistical methods, computational intelligence and traditional symbolic AI. There are an enormous number of tools used in AI, including versions of search and mathematical optimization, logic, methods based on probability and economics, and many others.

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Basic example of Artificial Intelligence programming is as follows :

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE PROGRAMMING EXAMPLE -------------

;;;; -*- Mode: Lisp; Syntax: Common-Lisp -*-
;;;; Code from Paradigms of AI Programming
;;;; Copyright (c) 1991 Peter Norvig

;;;; File pat-match.lisp: Pattern matcher from section 6.2

;;; Two bug fixes By Richard Fateman, rjf@cs.berkeley.edu October 92.

;;; The basic are in auxfns.lisp; look for "PATTERN MATCHING FACILITY"

(defun variable-p (x)
"Is x a variable (a symbol beginning with `?')?"
(and (symbolp x) (equal (elt (symbol-name x) 0) #\?)))

(defun pat-match (pattern input &optional (bindings no-bindings))
"Match pattern against input in the context of the bindings"
(cond ((eq bindings fail) fail)
((variable-p pattern)
(match-variable pattern input bindings))
((eql pattern input) bindings)
((segment-pattern-p pattern)
(segment-matcher pattern input bindings))
((single-pattern-p pattern) ; ***
(single-matcher pattern input bindings)) ; ***
((and (consp pattern) (consp input))
(pat-match (rest pattern) (rest input)
(pat-match (first pattern) (first input)
bindings)))
(t fail)))

(setf (get '?is 'single-match) 'match-is)
(setf (get '?or 'single-match) 'match-or)
(setf (get '?and 'single-match) 'match-and)
(setf (get '?not 'single-match) 'match-not)

(setf (get '?* 'segment-match) 'segment-match)
(setf (get '?+ 'segment-match) 'segment-match+)
(setf (get '?? 'segment-match) 'segment-match?)
(setf (get '?if 'segment-match) 'match-if)

(defun segment-pattern-p (pattern)
"Is this a segment-matching pattern like ((?* var) . pat)?"
(and (consp pattern) (consp (first pattern))
(symbolp (first (first pattern)))
(segment-match-fn (first (first pattern)))))

(defun single-pattern-p (pattern)
"Is this a single-matching pattern?
E.g. (?is x predicate) (?and . patterns) (?or . patterns)."
(and (consp pattern)
(single-match-fn (first pattern))))

(defun segment-matcher (pattern input bindings)
"Call the right function for this kind of segment pattern."
(funcall (segment-match-fn (first (first pattern)))
pattern input bindings))

(defun single-matcher (pattern input bindings)
"Call the right function for this kind of single pattern."
(funcall (single-match-fn (first pattern))
(rest pattern) input bindings))

(defun segment-match-fn (x)
"Get the segment-match function for x,
if it is a symbol that has one."
(when (symbolp x) (get x 'segment-match)))

(defun single-match-fn (x)
"Get the single-match function for x,
if it is a symbol that has one."
(when (symbolp x) (get x 'single-match)))

(defun match-is (var-and-pred input bindings)
"Succeed and bind var if the input satisfies pred,
where var-and-pred is the list (var pred)."
(let* ((var (first var-and-pred))
(pred (second var-and-pred))
(new-bindings (pat-match var input bindings)))
(if (or (eq new-bindings fail)
(not (funcall pred input)))
fail
new-bindings)))

(defun match-and (patterns input bindings)
"Succeed if all the patterns match the input."
(cond ((eq bindings fail) fail)
((null patterns) bindings)
(t (match-and (rest patterns) input
(pat-match (first patterns) input
bindings)))))

(defun match-or (patterns input bindings)
"Succeed if any one of the patterns match the input."
(if (null patterns)
fail
(let ((new-bindings (pat-match (first patterns)
input bindings)))
(if (eq new-bindings fail)
(match-or (rest patterns) input bindings)
new-bindings))))

(defun match-not (patterns input bindings)
"Succeed if none of the patterns match the input.
This will never bind any variables."
(if (match-or patterns input bindings)
fail
bindings))

(defun segment-match (pattern input bindings &optional (start 0))
"Match the segment pattern ((?* var) . pat) against input."
(let ((var (second (first pattern)))
(pat (rest pattern)))
(if (null pat)
(match-variable var input bindings)
(let ((pos (first-match-pos (first pat) input start)))
(if (null pos)
fail
(let ((b2 (pat-match
pat (subseq input pos)
(match-variable var (subseq input 0 pos)
bindings))))
;; If this match failed, try another longer one
(if (eq b2 fail)
(segment-match pattern input bindings (+ pos 1))
b2)))))))

(defun first-match-pos (pat1 input start)
"Find the first position that pat1 could possibly match input,
starting at position start. If pat1 is non-constant, then just
return start."
(cond ((and (atom pat1) (not (variable-p pat1)))
(position pat1 input :start start :test #'equal))
((<= start (length input)) start) ;*** fix, rjf 10/1/92 (was <)
(t nil)))

(defun segment-match+ (pattern input bindings)
"Match one or more elements of input."
(segment-match pattern input bindings 1))

(defun segment-match? (pattern input bindings)
"Match zero or one element of input."
(let ((var (second (first pattern)))
(pat (rest pattern)))
(or (pat-match (cons var pat) input bindings)
(pat-match pat input bindings))))

(defun match-if (pattern input bindings)
"Test an arbitrary expression involving variables.
The pattern looks like ((?if code) . rest)."
;; *** fix, rjf 10/1/92 (used to eval binding values)
(and (progv (mapcar #'car bindings)
(mapcar #'cdr bindings)
(eval (second (first pattern))))
(pat-match (rest pattern) input bindings)))

(defun pat-match-abbrev (symbol expansion)
"Define symbol as a macro standing for a pat-match pattern."
(setf (get symbol 'expand-pat-match-abbrev)
(expand-pat-match-abbrev expansion)))

(defun expand-pat-match-abbrev (pat)
"Expand out all pattern matching abbreviations in pat."
(cond ((and (symbolp pat) (get pat 'expand-pat-match-abbrev)))
((atom pat) pat)
(t (cons (expand-pat-match-abbrev (first pat))
(expand-pat-match-abbrev (rest pat))))))

(defun rule-based-translator
(input rules &key (matcher 'pat-match)
(rule-if #'first) (rule-then #'rest) (action #'sublis))
"Find the first rule in rules that matches input,
and apply the action to that rule."
(some
#'(lambda (rule)
(let ((result (funcall matcher (funcall rule-if rule)
input)))
(if (not (eq result fail))
(funcall action result (funcall rule-then rule)))))
rules))


 

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