Computer Networking Assignment Help | Computer Networking Homework Help | Computer Networking Project Help| Online Computer Networking Help

A computer network, or merely a network, is a collection of computers and other hardware interconnected by communication channels that permit sharing of resources and information. Where at least one process in one device is able to send/receive data to/from at least one process residing in a remote device, then the two devices are said to be in a network. A network is a group of devices connected to each other. Networks may be classified into a wide variety of characteristics, such as the medium used to transport the data, communications protocol used, scale, topology, benefit, and organizational scope.

Communications conventions define the rules and data formats for exchanging information in a computer network, and provide the basis for network programming. Well-known communications protocols include two Ethernet, a hardware and link layer standard that is ubiquitous in local area networks, and the Internet protocol suite, which defines a set of protocols for internetworking, i.e. for data communication between multiple networks, as well as host-to-host data transfer, and application-specific data transmission formats.

Computer networking is occasionally considered a sub-discipline of electrical engineering, telecommunications, computer science, information technology or computer engineering, since it relies upon the theoretical and practical application of these disciplines.

Before the introduction of computer networks that were based upon some type of telecommunications system, communication between calculation machines and early computers was performed by human users by carrying instructions between them. Many of the social behaviors seen in today's Internet were demonstrably present in the 19th century and arguably in even earlier networks using visual signals.

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Basic example of Computer Networking is as follows :

COMPUTER NETWORKING EXAMPLE -------------


You can think of client/server programming like a pizza-delivery place. As an employee at the pizza place, you wait by the phone (you are the "server"). Upon receiving a call from a client, you send a "hello" message. The client responds by sending you an order. You acknowledge and write down the order (performing the server's task). You or they hang up (connection closes). Typically the server will spawn a thread to actually handle the request as it can be complicated, like making the pizza. The server should go back to answering the phone rather than using a single-threaded model and making the pizza itself. Note: the server blocks waiting on a request at the port rather than sitting in a spin loop, "picking up the phone" to see if anybody is there--it waits for a "telephone ring."

The following code embodies a simple, single-threaded version of the above scenario (it assumes ASCII text communication).

import java.net.*;
import java.io.*;

public class PizzaHut {
public static final int PIZZA_HUT_PHONE_NUMBER = 8080;
boolean openForBusiness = true;

public static void main(String[] args) {
try {
PizzaHut restaurant = new PizzaHut();
restaurant.startAnsweringPhone();
}
catch (IOException ioe) {
System.err.println("Can't open for business or problem serving!");
ioe.printStackTrace(System.err);
}
}

public void startAnsweringPhone() throws IOException {
ServerSocket phone = new ServerSocket(PIZZA_HUT_PHONE_NUMBER);
while (openForBusiness) {
DataInputStream din = null;
PrintStream pout = null;
Socket phoneCall = null;
try {
// wait for a call; sleep while you are waiting
phoneCall = phone.accept();
// get an input stream (the headset speaker)
InputStream in = phoneCall.getInputStream();
din = new DataInputStream(in);
// get an output stream (the microphone)
OutputStream out = phoneCall.getOutputStream();
pout = new PrintStream(out);

// say hello
pout.println("hello, Pizza Hut, how may I help you?");
// take the order
String order = din.readLine();
// read it back to customer
pout.println("your order: "+order);

createPizza(order);
}
finally { // ensure close happens
din.close();
pout.close();
phoneCall.close();
}
}
}

protected void createPizza(String order) {
// parse order and perform work
}
}
When we get to threads you will learn how to allow the pizza to be made while the phone is being answered. It is like hiring more than one employee.

 

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