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Prolog is a general purpose logic programming language associated with artificial intelligence and computational linguistics.

Prolog has its roots in first-order logic, a formal logic, and unlike many other programming languages, Prolog is declarative: the program logic is expressed in terms of relations, represented as facts and rules. A computation is initiated by running a query over these relations.

The language was first conceived by a group around Alain Colmerauer in Marseille, France, in the early 1970s and the first Prolog system was developed in 1972 by Colmerauer with Philippe Roussel.

Prolog was one of the first logic **programming languages**, and remains the most popular among such languages today, with many free and commercial implementations available. While initially aimed at natural language processing, the language has since then stretched far into other areas like theorem proving, expert systems, games, automated answering systems, ontologies and sophisticated control systems. Modern Prolog environments support creating graphical user interfaces, as well as administrative and networked applications.

A design pattern is a general reusable solution to a commonly occurring problem in software design. In Prolog, design patterns go under various names: skeletons and techniques, cliches, program schemata, and logic description schemata. An alternative to design patterns is higher order programming.

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**PROLOG PROGRAMMING EXAMPLE** -------------

Recursion: Towers of Hanoi

The 3-disk setup is like this:

| | |

xxx | |

xxxxx | |

xxxxxxx | |

_________________________________

Here's a sample:

% move(N,X,Y,Z) - move N disks from peg X to peg Y, with peg Z being the

% auxilliary peg

%

% Strategy:

% Base Case: One disc - To transfer a stack consisting of 1 disc from

% peg X to peg Y, simply move that disc from X to Y

% Recursive Case: To transfer n discs from X to Y, do the following:

Transfer the first n-1 discs to some other peg X

Move the last disc on X to Y

Transfer the n-1 discs from X to peg Y

move(1,X,Y,_) :-

write('Move top disk from '),

write(X),

write(' to '),

write(Y),

nl.

move(N,X,Y,Z) :-

N>1,

M is N-1,

move(M,X,Z,Y),

move(1,X,Y,_),

move(M,Z,Y,X).

- note the use of "anonymous" variables _

Here is what happens when Prolog solves the case N=3.

?- move(3,left,right,center).

Move top disk from left to right

Move top disk from left to center

Move top disk from right to center

Move top disk from left to right

Move top disk from center to left

Move top disk from center to right

Move top disk from left to right

yes

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